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WHAT ARE OBESITY AND METABOLIC SYNDROME

Obesity has already become one of the most important epidemics in the modern world. It is deceived who treats it only as an aesthetic problem or of social acceptance. Obesity is a disease with mortality proportional to the degree of overweight. The bigger, the bigger.

Let's start a series of articles on obesity, explaining its consequences and treatment options. This article is the first part of the series, which still consists of the following themes:
- CALORIAS PARA EMAGRECER
- HOW TO LOSE WEIGHT IN A HEALTHY WAY
- DIET TO WEAR
- REMEDIES TO WEAR
- PLASTIC SURGERY AFTER LARGE WEIGHT LOSS

What is obesity?

There are two classic ways of assessing whether your weight can bring about problems to your health. The first is the body mass index (BMI), which is used to assess if your weight is adequate in relation to your height. It is through BMI that we routinely diagnose obesity.

The second form is through the relationship between waist and hip length. This evaluation is done in all patients with BMI above 25 kg / m² an

d is used for the diagnosis of central obesity, which is a form of obesity more associated with the emergence of cardiovascular diseases.

Let's talk a bit about these two evaluations.

1) BMI

The most widely used method for assessing obesity is body mass index. It is a simple calculation in which we divide the weight by the square of the height, that is:

BMI = Weight (in kilograms) ÷ height² (in meters)

Examples:
(a) a person of 110 kg and 0 m:
- BMI = 110 kg(I.e.(, 0 mx, 0 m)= 4.6 kg / m²

(b) a person of 75 kg and 0 m:
- BMI = 75 kg(I.e.(, 0 mx, 0 m)= 2.4 kg / m²

..

The classification based on BMI is as follows:

Low weight= BMI less than 1 kg / m²
Normal weight= BMI between 1 and 2, kg / m²
Overweight= BMI between 25 and 2, kg / m²
Obesity grade I= BMI between 30 and 3, kg / m²
Obesity grade II= BMI between 35 and 3, kg / m²
Morbid obesity= BMI greater than 40 kg / m²

Example "a" fits the diagnosis of morbid obesity, while example "b" is for a person of normal weight.

Note: The above formula does not apply to people with large muscle mass, since it usually in the category of overweight, or even obesity, even presenting a low percentage of fat in the body.

To know more about the IMC and to have access access the following articles:

  • CALCULATE YOUR IDEAL WEIGHT AND BMI.
  • HOW TO CALCULATE THE BMI - Body Mass Index

2) Relation between waist and hip length

All persons with BMI greater than 25 kg / m² should have measured abdominal circumference. Men and women with waist greater than 102 cm and 88 cm, respectively, are at higher risk of developing obesity-related diseases.

Central and peripheral distribution of body fat

The so-called central obesity is the one that carries the highest risk of cardiovascular disease and early death. People with fat accumulation in the abdominal region present the so-called visceral fat, which is the excess of this around the organs.

The accumulation of fat predominantly in the thighs and hips offers a lower risk, since it presents less affection of the internal organs. It is the apple-shaped body versus the pear-shaped body.

Another way to evaluate central fat is through the relationship between waist and hip length. Values ​​greater than 1 in men and in women indicate a higher risk of obesity-related diseases.

Waist
= Greater than 1 in men or greater than in women
Hip

From 35 kg / m², these measures lose value since all have a higher incidence of diseases.

What is the metabolic syndrome?

It is considered to have the metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X, individuals who have at least 3 of the following 5 criteria:

  • Abdominal circumference greater than 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women
  • Blood triglyceride levels greater than 150 mg / dl
  • HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol) less than 40 mg / dl in men and 50 mg / dl in women
  • Blood pressure greater than 130/85 mmHg (read about blood pressure values ​​in ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION - Symptoms, Causes and Treatment)
  • Fasting glucose levels greater than 100 mg / dl Obese people and / or people with the metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

People with excess weight have higher morbidity (existence of associated diseases) and higher mortality than people with normal weight. The mere presence of overweight is enough to reduce life expectancy. The risk of death is 3 times higher in obese than in people with normal BMI.

Contrary to what one might think, adipose (fatty) tissue is not simply a lot of fat inactive. It is actually a metabolically active tissue producing enzymes that cause resistance to insulin functioning, elevated blood pressure, increased cholesterol deposition in vessels and other actions that increase patient morbidity obese.

We talk more about the metabolic syndrome in the article: METABOLIC SYNDROME - What it is, Causes and Treatment.