Colitis Microscopy - What It Is, Symptoms and Treatmentswith medicines. In additionMicroscopic Colitisis an inflammation of the large intestine (colon) that causes persistent watery diarrhea. Disorder is the name of the fact that it is necessary to examine the tissue of the colon under the microscope to identify it, since the tissue may appear normal with colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy. The term colitis refers to inflammation of the mucosa of the large intestine. There are several types of colitis, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, ischemic colitis, infectious colitis, eosinophilic colitis, andMicroscopic Colitis. The purpose of this text is to discuss microscopic colitis (or micro colitis), which is a large bowel (colon) that is becoming frequent in our country and that should be remembered as a possible cause of symptoms digestive diseases.
Micro colitis is a very common cause of chronic diarrhea, and its incidence has been increasing a lot in the last 20 years, mainly due to the improvement of diagnostic mechanisms and methods. The term
Types of Microscopic Colitis:There are two subtypes ofMicroscopic Colitis:.
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- Collagenous colitis, in which a thick layer of protein (collagen) develops in the tissue of the colon
- Lymphocytic colitis, in which the white blood cells (lymphocytes) increase in the tissue of the colon
Researchers believe that collagenous colitis (kuh-LAYJ-uh-nus) and lymphocytic colitis may be different phases of the same condition. Symptoms, tests, and treatment are the same for both subtypes. Symptoms ofMicroscopic Colitiscan come and go often. Sometimes the symptoms resolve themselves. Otherwise, your doctor may suggest a number of effective medications.
Causes of Microscopic Colitis:It is not clear what causes the colon inflammation found in theMicroscopic Colitis. Researchers believe that the causes may include:.
- Medications that can irritate the lining of the colon.
- Bacteria that produce toxins that irritate the lining of the colon.
- Viruses that trigger inflammation.
- Autoimmune disease associated withMicroscopic Colitissuch as rheumatoid arthritis or celiac disease. The autoimmune disease occurs when your body's immune system attacks healthy tissues.
- Bile acid is not being absorbed properly and irritates the lining of the colon.
Symptoms of Microscopic Colitis:The signs and symptoms ofMicroscopic Colitisinclude:
- Chronic aqueous diarrhea
- Abdominal pain or cramps
- Weight loss
- Fecal incontinence
When to Contact a Physician:If you have watery diarrhea that lasts for more than a few days, contact your doctor so that your condition can be diagnosed and properly treated.
Microscopic Colitis Risk Factors:The risk factors forMicroscopic Colitisinclude:.
- Age and Sex.THEMicroscopic Colitisis more common in people between the ages of 50 and 70 and more common in women than in men. Some researchers suggest an association with a decrease in hormones in postmenopausal women.
- Autoimmune disease.People withMicroscopic Colitissometimes also have an autoimmune disease such as celiac disease, thyroid disease, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes or psoriasis.
- Genetic Link.Research suggests that there may be a connection betweenMicroscopic Colitisand family history of irritable bowel syndrome.
- Smoke.A recent research study showed an association between smoking andMicroscopic Colitis, especially in people aged 16-44.
Some research studies indicate that the use of certain medications may increase your risk ofMicroscopic Colitis. But not all studies agree. Medications that may be linked to the condition include:.
- Aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others)
- Inhibitors of the proton pump, including lansoprazole (Prevacid), esomeprazole (Nexium), pantoprazole (Protonix), .rabeprazole (Aciphex), omeprazole (Prilosec) and dexlansoprazole
- Acarbose (Early)
- Ranitidine (Zantac)
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as sertraline (Zoloft)
- Carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol)
- Clozapine (Clozaril, Fazaclo)
- Entacapone (Comtan)
- Paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva)
- Simvastatin (Zocor)
Complications of Microscopic Colitis:Most people are successfully treated forMicroscopic Colitis. The condition does not increase your risk of colon cancer.
Diagnosis of Microscopic Colitis:A complete medical history and physical examination can help determine whether other conditions, such as celiac disease, can contribute to your diarrhea. Your doctor will also ask about the medications you are taking, particularly aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), which may increase your risk ofMicroscopic Colitis..
A definitive diagnosis ofMicroscopic Colitisrequires a tissue sample from the colon (biopsy) obtained during a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy. Both tests use a long thin tube with an end camera and an attached tissue sampling device to examine the inside of the colon and remove a tissue sample. In both subtypes ofMicroscopic Colitis, the cells of the colon tissue have a distinct appearance under the microscope, so the diagnosis is definitive.
Other Tests:In addition to colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy, you may have one or more of these tests to exclude other causes of your symptoms.
- Analysis of stool samples to help rule out infection as a cause of persistent diarrhea.
- Blood test to look for signs of anemia or infection.
- Upper endoscopy with biopsy to rule out celiac disease. Doctors use a long thin tube with a camera at the end to examine the upper part of the digestive tract. They can remove a tissue sample (biopsy) for laboratory analysis.
Treatment of Microscopic Colitis:THEMicroscopic Colitiscan improve on its own. But when symptoms persist or are severe, you may need treatment to alleviate them. Doctors usually try a gradual approach, starting with the simplest and easily tolerated treatments..
Diet and Discontinuation of Medication:Treatment usually begins with changes in your diet and medications that may help relieve persistent diarrhea. Your doctor may recommend that you:
- Eat a diet low in fat and low in fiber. Foods that contain less fat and are low in fiber can help relieve diarrhea.
- Stop dairy products, gluten or both. These foods can make your symptoms worse.
- Avoid caffeine and sugar.
- Stop any medication that may be a cause of your symptoms. Your doctor may recommend a different medication to treat an underlying condition.
Medicines:If signs and symptoms persist, your doctor may recommend:.
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- Antidiarrheal medicines such as loperamide (Imodium) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)
- Bile acid blocking drugs (which may contribute to diarrhea), such as cholestyramine / aspartame or cholestyramine (Questran), or colestipol (Colestid)
- Steroids like Budesonide (Entocort EC)
- Anti-inflammatory drugs such as mesalamine (Delzicol, Apriso, others) to help control colon inflammation
- Medications that suppress the immune system to help reduce inflammation in the colon, such as mercaptopurine (Purinethol), azathioprine (Azasan, Imuran)
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Surgery:When the symptoms ofMicroscopic Colitisare severe and the medications are not effective, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove all or part of your colon. Surgery is rarely needed to treatMicroscopic Colitis..
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