Diabetes - What It Is, Causes, Symptoms and Treatmentswhich many are unaware of. In addition,Diabetesrefers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it is an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It is also the main source of fuel for your brain. If you haveDiabetes, regardless of type, means that you have a lot of blood glucose, although the causes may be different. Too much glucose can lead to serious health problems. The conditions ofDiabeteschronic diseases includeDiabetestype 1 andDiabetestype 2.
The conditions ofDiabetespotentially reversible include pre-Diabetes- when blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified asDiabetes- andDiabetesgestational age, which occurs during pregnancy, but can be resolved after the baby is given.
Causes of Diabetes:To understand theDiabetes, you must first understand how glucose is normally processed in the body.
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How Insulin Works:Insulin is a hormone that comes from a gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas).
- The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream.
- Insulin circulates, allowing sugar to enter your cells.
- Insulin reduces the amount of sugar in the bloodstream.
- As the blood sugar level drops, the insulin secretion also from your pancreas.
The Role of Glucose:Glucose - a sugar - is a source of energy for the cells that make up the muscles and other tissues..
- Glucose comes from two main sources: food and your liver.
- The sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream where it enters the cells with the help of insulin.
- Your liver shops and makes glucose.
- When your glucose levels are low, such as when you have not eaten at one time, the liver degrades the glycogen stored in glucose to keep your glucose level within a normal range.
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes:The exact cause ofDiabetestype 1 is unknown. What is known is that your immune system - which normally fights harmful bacteria or viruses - attacks and destroys your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves little or no insulin.
Instead of being transported to the cells, sugar accumulates in the bloodstream. Type 1 is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, although exactly what many of these factors are is still unclear.
Causes of Pre-Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes:In the pre-Diabetes- which can lead toDiabetestype 2 - and inDiabetestype 2, your cells become resistant to the action of insulin and your pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Instead of moving to the cells where energy is needed, sugar builds up in the bloodstream..
Exactly why this happens is uncertain, although it is believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development ofDiabetestype 2. Excess weight is strongly linked to the development ofDiabetestype 2, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight.
Causes of Gestational Diabetes:During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to support your pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin. Normally, your pancreas responds by producing enough extra insulin to overcome this resistance. But sometimes your pancreas can not keep up. When this happens, little glucose enters your cells and too much remains in your blood, resulting in gestational diabetes.
Symptoms of Diabetes:The symptoms of diabetes vary according to the amount of increased blood sugar. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not have symptoms initially. In type 1 diabetes, the symptoms tend to appear quickly and to be more severe. Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are:.
- Increased thirst
- Frequent urination
- Extreme hunger
- Unexplained weight loss
- Presence of ketones in urine (ketones are a byproduct of muscle and fat breakdown that happens when insufficient insulin is available)
- Blurry vision
- Slow healing heels
- Frequent infections such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections
Although type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, it usually appears during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, the most common type, can develop at any age, although it is more common in people over the age of 40.When to Contact a Physician:If you suspect you or your child may have diabetes. If you notice possible symptoms of diabetes, contact your doctor. The earlier the condition is diagnosed, the earlier treatment can begin.
If you have ever been diagnosed with diabetes. After receiving your diagnosis, you will need close medical follow-up until your blood sugar levels stabilize.
Diabetes Risk Factors:Risk factors forDiabetesdepend on the type ofDiabetes.
Risk Factors for Type 1 Diabetes:Although the exact cause ofDiabetestype 1 is unknown, factors that may indicate an increased risk include:.
- Family history.Your risk increases if a parent or sibling hasDiabetestype 1.
- Environmental factors.Circumstances such as exposure to a viral disease are likely to play aDiabetestype 1.
- The presence of harmful immune system cells (autoantibodies).Sometimes members of the family of people withDiabetestype 1 are tested for the presence of autoantibodies ofDiabetes. If you have these autoantibodies, you have an increased risk of developingDiabetestype 1. But not all those who have these autoantibodies developDiabetes.
- Dietary factors.These include low vitamin D intake, early exposure to cow's milk or cow's milk formula, and exposure to cereals before 4 months of age. None of these factorsDiabetestype 1.
- Geography.Some countries, such as Finland and Sweden, have higherDiabetestype 1.
Risk Factors for Pre-Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes:Researchers do not fully understand why some people develop pre-diabetes andDiabetestype 2 and others not. Of course, certain factors increase risk, however, including:
- Weight.The more adipose tissue you have, the more resistant your cells become to insulin.
- Inactivity.The less active you are, the greater your risk. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses glucose as energy, and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
- Family history.Your risk increases if a parent or sibling hasDiabetestype 2.
- Running.While it is unclear why people of certain races - including blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian Americans - are at greater risk.
- Advanced age.Your risk increases as you get older. This may be because you tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass and gain weight as you get older. ButDiabetestype 2 is also increasing dramatically among children, adolescents and younger adults.
- Gestational diabetes.If you have developedDiabetesgestational age when she was pregnant, her risk of developing pre-diabetes andDiabetestype 2 increases later. If you gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 kilos, you also run the risk ofDiabetestype 2.
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome.For women, with polycystic ovarian syndrome - a common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excessive hair growth and obesity - increases the risk ofDiabetes.
- High pressure.Blood pressure above 140/90 mm of mercury (mm Hg) is linked to an increased risk ofDiabetestype 2.
- Abnormal levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.If you have low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good the risk ofDiabetestype 2 is larger. Triglycerides are another type of fat carried in the blood. People with high triglyceride levels have an increased risk ofDiabetestype 2. Your doctor can advise you on cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes:Any pregnant woman can developDiabetesbut some women are at greater risk than others. Risk factors forDiabetesinclude:.
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- Advanced age.Women over the age of 25 are at increased risk.
- Family or personal history.Your risk increases if you have pre-diabetes - a precursor ofDiabetestype 2 - or if a close relative, such as a parent orDiabetestype 2. You are also at greater risk if you have had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy if you delivered a very large baby or if you had an unexplained fetal death.
- Weight.Excess weight before pregnancy increases your risk.
- Breed.For reasons that are not clear, women who are black, Hispanic, Indian American or Asian are more likely to developDiabetesgestational.
Diabetes Complications:The long-term complications ofDiabetesdevelop gradually. The more time you haveDiabetes- and the less you control your blood sugar - the greater the risk of complications. Eventually, the complications ofDiabetescan be disabling or even fatal. Possible complications include:.
- Cardiovascular disease.Diabetesdramatically increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke and narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis). If you haveDiabetes, you are more likely to have heart disease or stroke.
- Nerve damage (neuropathy).Excess sugar can hurt the walls of the small blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in the legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually starts at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upwards. It was not treated, you could lose all sensation of feeling in the affected limbs. Nerve damage related to digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation. For men, it can lead to erectile dysfunction.
- Renal damage (nephropathy).The kidneys contain millions of small clusters of blood vessels (glomeruli) that filter the wastes from your blood.Diabetescan damage this delicate filtering system. Serious damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible kidney failure, which may require dialysis or kidney transplantation.
- Eye damage (retinopathy).Diabetescan damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), potentially leading to blindness.Diabetesalso increases the risk of other serious vision conditions such as cataracts and glaucoma.
- Foot injury.Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet increases the risk of various foot complications. Lack of treatment, cuts and blisters can develop serious infections, which often heal poorly. These infections can ultimately require amputation of the foot, foot or leg.
- Skin conditions.Diabetesmay make you more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.
- Hearing deficiency.Hearing problems are more common in people withDiabetes.
- Alzheimer's disease.THEDiabetestype 2 may increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. The lower your blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be. Although there are theories on how these disorders may be connected, none have yet been proven.
Gestational Diabetes Complications:The majority of women withDiabetesoffers healthy babies. However, untreated or uncontrolled blood sugar levels can cause problems for you and your baby. Complications in your baby can occur as a result ofDiabetesincluding:
- Excessive growth.The extra glucose can cross the placenta, which triggers your baby's pancreas to make extra insulin. This can cause your baby to grow very large (macrosomia). Very large babies are more likely to require a C birth.
- Low blood sugar.Sometimes, babies of mothers withDiabetesgestational diabetes develop low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after delivery because insulin production is high. Fast food and sometimes an intravenous glucose solution can return your baby's blood sugar level to normal.
- Type 2 diabetes later in life.Babies of mothers who haveDiabeteshave a higher risk of developing obesity andDiabetestype 2 later in life.
- Death.THEDiabetespregnancy can result in the death of a baby before or shortly after birth.
Complications in the mother may also occur as a result ofDiabetesincluding:
- Pre eclampsia.This condition is characterized by high blood pressure, excessive protein in the urine and swelling in the legs and feet. Pre-eclampsia can lead to serious or even fatal complications for the mother and the baby.
- Subsequent gestational diabetes.Since you hadDiabetesgestational age in a pregnancy, you are more likely to have it again with the next pregnancy. You are also more likely to developDiabetes- usuallyDiabetestype 2 - as you get older.
Diabetes Testing and Diagnosis:Symptoms ofDiabetestype 1 usually appear suddenly and are often the reason to check blood sugar levels. As the symptoms of other types ofDiabetesand pre-diabetes occur more gradually or may not be evident, AmericanDiabetesAssociation (ADA) recommended screening guidelines. The ADA recommends that the following persons be examined forDiabetes:.
- Anyone with a body mass index greater than 25, regardless of age, has additional risk factors such as hypertension arterial, sedentary lifestyle, history of polycystic ovary syndrome, having delivered a baby weighing more than 9 pounds, a history InDiabetesin pregnancy, high cholesterol, history of heart disease, and a close relative withDiabetes.
- Anyone over the age of 45 years is advised to receive an initial blood sugar screen and, if the results are normal, will be selected every three years thereafter.
Tests for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes:The tests forDiabetestype 1 and type 2 and pre-Diabetesare:
- Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar in the last two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar associated with hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in the red blood cells. The higher the blood sugar level, the more hemoglobin you will have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or more in two separate tests indicates that you haveDiabetes. An A1C between, and, percent indicates pre-diabetes. Below, it is considered normal.
If the A1C test results are not consistent, the test is not available or if you have certain conditions that may make the A1C test inaccurate - such as if you were pregnant or had an unusual form of hemoglobin (known as hemoglobin variant) - your doctor can use the following tests to diagnose Diabetes:
- Randomized blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) - 1, millimoles per liter (mmol / L) - or higher suggestsDiabetes.
- Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after a one-night fast. A fasting blood sugar level of less than 100 mg / dL (mmol mmol / L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level of 100 to 125 mg / dL (, a, mmol / L) is considered to be pre-Diabetes. If it is 126 mg / dL (7 mmol / L) or higher in two separate tests, you haveDiabetes.
- Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you quickly overnight, and your fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically in the next two hours. A blood sugar level of less than 140 mg / dL (mmol mmol / L) is normal. A reading of more than 200 mg / dL (1, mmol / L) after two hours indicatesDiabetes. A reading between 140 and 199 mg / dL (mmol mmol / L and 1 mmol mmol / L)Diabetes.
If there is a suspicion ofDiabetesType 1, your urine will be tested to look for the presence of a by-product produced when muscle adipose is used for energy when the body does not have enough insulin to use the available glucose (ketones). Your doctor will probably also do a test to see if you have the destructive cells of the immune system associated with it.Diabetestype 1 called autoantibodies..
Gestational Diabetes Tests:Your doctor will probably evaluate your risk factors forDiabetespregnancy in early pregnancy:
- If you are at high risk ofDiabetesgestational - for example, if you were obese in early pregnancy, you hadDiabetespregnancy during a previous pregnancy or have a mother, father, sibling or child withDiabetes- Your doctor can test theDiabeteson his first prenatal visit.
If you are at average risk ofDiabetesgestational age, you will probably have a screening test forDiabetessometime in the second trimester - usually between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy.
Your doctor may use the following screening tests:
- Initial glucose challenge test.You will begin the glucose challenge test by taking a glucose syrup solution. An hour later, you will have a blood test to measure your blood sugar. A blood sugar level below 140 mg / dL (.mol / L) is generally considered normal in a glucose challenge test, although this may vary in specific clinics or laboratories. If your blood sugar level is higher than normal, it means that you have a higher risk ofDiabetesgestational. Your doctor will ask for a follow-up test to determine if you haveDiabetesgestational.
- Follow-up of the glucose tolerance test.For the follow-up test, you will be asked to fast overnight and then your fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you will drink another sweet solution - this one containing a higher concentration of glucose - and your blood sugar level will be checked every hour for a period of three hours. If at least two of your blood sugar readings are higher than the normal values set for each of the three hours of the test, you will be diagnosed withDiabetesgestational.
Diabetes Treatments:Depending on the type ofDiabetesyou have, monitoring blood sugar, insulin and oral medications can play an important role in your treatment. Eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and participating in regular activities are also important factors in controllingDiabetes.
Treatments for All Types of Diabetes:An important part ofDiabetes- as well as your overall health - is to maintain a healthy weight through a healthy diet and exercise plan:
- Healthy eating. Contrary to popular perception, there is no specific diet for diabetes. You will need to focus your diet on more fruits, vegetables and whole grains - nutrition-rich foods and fiber and low fat and calories - and reduced in animal products, refined carbohydrates and candy In fact, it is the best meal plan for the whole family. Sugary foods are OK from time to time as long as they are counted as part of your meal plan.
However, understanding what and how much to eat can be challenging. A registered nutritionist can help you create a meal plan that meets your health goals, food preferences, and lifestyle choices. This will probably include carbohydrate counts, especially if you haveDiabetestype 1.
- Physical activity. Everyone needs regular aerobic exercise, and people withDiabetesare no exception. Exercise lowers blood sugar by moving sugar into cells, where it is used for energy. Exercise also increases your insulin sensitivity, which means your body needs less insulin to carry sugar into its cells. Make sure your doctor is ready to exercise. Then choose the activities you like, such as walking, swimming or biking. What is more important is to be part of the physical activity of your daily routine. Aim for at least 30 minutes or more of aerobic exercise most days of the week. If you are not active for a while, start slowly and advance gradually.
Treatments for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes:Treatment forDiabetesType 1 involves insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, frequent checks of blood sugar, and carbohydrate counts. The treatment ofDiabetestype 2 mainly involves monitoring your blood sugar along with medications for diabetes, insulin or both.
- Monitoring your blood sugar.Depending on your treatment plan, you can check and register your blood sugar as often as several times a week for up to four to eight times a day. Careful monitoring is the only way to ensure your blood sugar stays within your target range. People who receive insulin therapy may also choose to monitor their blood sugar levels with a continuous glucose monitor. Although this technology still does not replace the glucose meter, it can provide important information about trends in blood sugar levels.
Even with careful management, blood sugar levels can sometimes change unpredictably. With the help of your treatmentDiabetes, you will learn how your blood sugar changes in response to food, physical activity, medication, illness, alcohol, stress - for women, fluctuations in hormone levels.
In addition to daily blood sugar monitoring, your doctor will probably recommend regular A1C tests to measure your average blood sugar in the last two to three months. Compared to repeated daily blood sugar tests, the A1C test better indicates how well yourDiabetesis working in general.
A high A1C level may signal the need for a change in your insulin regimen or meal plan. Your target A1C target may vary depending on your age and various other factors. However, for most people withDiabetes, AmericanDiabetesAssociation recommends an A1C below 7%. Ask your doctor what your A1C target is.
Insulin:People withDiabetestype 1 need insulin therapy to survive. Many people withDiabetestype 2 orDiabetesalso need insulin therapy. There are many types of insulin, including fast-acting insulin, long-acting insulin, and intermediate options. Depending on your needs, your doctor may prescribe a mixture of insulin types to use throughout the day and at night.
Insulin can not be taken orally to lower blood sugar because the enzymes in the stomach interfere with the action of insulin. Often, the insulin is injected using a thin needle and syringe or an insulin pen - a device that looks like a large ink pen.
An insulin pump may also be an option. The pump is a device the size of a cell phone used outside your body. A tube connects the insulin reservoir to a catheter that is inserted under the skin of the abdomen. A wireless camera pump that works wirelessly is also available.
You schedule an insulin pump to dispense specific amounts of insulin. It can be adjusted to provide more or less insulin depending on the meals, activity level and blood sugar level. An emerging treatment approach, not yet available, is the delivery of closed-loop insulin, also known as artificial pancreas.
It attaches a continuous glucose monitor to an insulin pump. The device automatically delivers the correct amount of insulin when the monitor indicates the need for it. There are several different versions of the artificial pancreas, and clinical trials have had encouraging results. More research needs to be done before a fully functional artificial pancreas can receive regulatory approval.
However, the first step to an artificial pancreas was approved in 2013. By combining a continuous glucose monitor with an insulin pump, this system stops the administration of insulin when blood sugar levels drop too low. Studies in the device have found that it could prevent low blood sugar levels at night without significantly increasing blood sugar levels in the morning.
- Oral or other medications.Sometimes other oral or injected medications are also prescribed. Some medicines forDiabetesstimulate your pancreas to produce and release more insulin. Others inhibit the production and release of glucose from your liver, which means you need less insulin to transport sugar into cells. Still others block the action of stomach or intestinal enzymes that break down carbohydrates or make your tissues more sensitive to insulin. Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others) is usually the first drug prescribed forDiabetestype 2.
- Transplantation.In some people who haveDiabetesType 1, a pancreas transplant may be an option. Islet transplants are also being studied. With a successful pancreas transplant, you would not need insulin therapy anymore. But transplants are not always successful - and these procedures pose serious risks. You need a lifetime of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent organ rejection. These drugs can have serious side effects, including a high risk of infection, organic damage and cancer. As the side effects can be more dangerous than theDiabetes, transplants are usually reserved for people whoseDiabetescan not be controlled or those who also need a kidney transplant.
- Bariatric surgery.Although it is not specifically considered a treatment forDiabetestype 2, people withDiabetestype 2 who also have a body mass index greater than 35 can benefit from this type of surgery. People who have undergone gastric bypass have seen significant improvements in their blood sugar levels. However, the long-term risks and benefits of this procedure for theDiabetestype 2 are not yet known.
Treatments for Gestational Diabetes:Controlling your blood sugar level is essential to keep your baby healthy and avoid complications during childbirth. In addition to maintaining a healthy diet and exercise, your treatment plan may include monitoring your blood sugar and, in some cases, using insulin or oral medications.
Your doctor will also monitor your blood sugar during labor. If your blood sugar level increases, your baby can release high levels of insulin - which can lead to low blood sugar soon after birth.
Pre-Diabetes Treatment:If you have pre-Diabetes, healthy lifestyle choices can help you regain your normal blood sugar level, or at least prevent it from growing toward your normal blood sugar levels.Diabetestype 2. Maintaining a healthy weight through exercise and healthy eating can help. Exercising at least 150 minutes a week and losing 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can prevent or delayDiabetestype 2.
Sometimes medicines - such as metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others) - are also an option if you are at high risk ofDiabetes, including when your pre-diabetes is getting worse or if you have cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease, or polycystic ovary syndrome.
In other cases, medications to control cholesterol - statins in particular - and medicines for high blood pressure are needed. Your doctor may prescribe low-dose aspirin therapy to help prevent cardiovascular disease if you are at high risk. Healthy lifestyle choices remain essential, though.
Signs of Problems in Any Type of Diabetes:Because so many factors can affect your blood sugar, problems can arise that require immediate care, such as:
- High blood sugar (hyperglycemia).Your blood sugar level may increase for many reasons, including overeating, being sick, or not taking enough medication to lower your glucose. Check your blood sugar as directed by your doctor, and observe signs and symptoms of high blood sugar - frequent urination, increased thirst, dry mouth, blurred vision, fatigue and nausea If you have hyperglycemia, you will need to adjust your meal plan, medications, or both.
- Increased urine ketones (diabetic ketoacidosis).If your cells are hungry for energy, your body can start breaking down fat. This produces toxic acids known as ketones. Look for loss of appetite, weakness, vomiting, fever, upset stomach and a sweet, fruity breath. You can check your urine in excess of ketones with a ketone test kit without a prescription. If you have excess urine ketones, consult your doctor immediately or seek emergency care. This condition is more common in people withDiabetestype 1.
- Hyperglycemic nonoskeletal hyperosmolar syndrome.The signs and symptoms of this life-threatening condition include a reading of blood sugar above 600 mg / dL (3 mmol / L), dry mouth, extreme thirst, fever, drowsiness, confusion, loss of vision and hallucinations. Hyperosmolar syndrome is caused by high blood sugar in the sky that turns blood into thick syrup. It tends to be more common in people withDiabetestype 2 and is often preceded by an illness. Call your doctor or seek immediate medical attention if you have signs or symptoms of this condition.
- Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).If your blood sugar level falls below your target range, it is known as low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Your blood sugar level may fall for several reasons, including skipping a meal and getting more physical activity than normal. However, your blood sugar level is very likely if you take that promote insulin secretion by the pancreas or if you are receiving insulin. Check your blood sugar regularly and watch for signs and symptoms of low blood sugar - sweating, tremor, weakness, hunger, dizziness, headache, blurred vision, heart palpitations, irritability, speech, drowsiness, confusion, fainting, and convulsions. Low blood sugar is treated with rapidly absorbed carbohydrates such as fruit juices or glucose tablets.
Alternative medicine:Numerous substances have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in some studies, while others studies can not find any benefit for blood sugar control or of A1C. Because of the conflicting findings, there is no alternative therapy currently recommended to help manage blood sugar.
If you decide to try alternative therapy, do not stop taking the medicines your doctor prescribed for you. Be sure to discuss the use of any of these therapies with your doctor to ensure they will not cause adverse reactions or interact with your current therapy.
In addition, there are no alternative or conventional treatments that can cure theDiabetes, so it is critical that people who are receiving insulin therapy toDiabetesdo not stop using insulin unless directed to do so by your doctors.
Prevention of Diabetes:ODiabetesis a serious illness. After your treatment planDiabetes, a 24-hour commitment is required. Careful management ofDiabetescan reduce your risk of serious complications - even life-threatening - complications. Regardless of the type ofDiabetesthat you have:
- Make a commitment to managing your diabetes.Know everything you can aboutDiabetes. Establish a relationship with aDiabetesand ask your treatment team for help.Diabeteswhen you need.
- Choose healthy foods and maintain a healthy weight.Losing only 7 percent of your body weight if you are overweight can make a significant difference in your blood sugar control. A healthy diet is one with plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes, with a limited amount of saturated fats.
- Be part of the physical activity of your daily routine.Regular exercise can help prevent pre-DiabetesandDiabetestype 2, and can help those who already haveDiabetesto maintain a better control of blood sugar. Thirty minutes of moderate exercise - such as brisk walking - is recommended most days of the week. A combination of exercises - aerobic exercises such as walking or dancing on most days combined with resistance training such as lifting weight or yoga twice a week - usually helps control blood sugar more effectively than any other type of exercise alone.
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Lifestyle for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes:In addition, if you haveDiabetestype 1 or type 2:
- Identify yourself.Wear a label or bracelet that says you haveDiabetes. Keep a glucagon kit nearby in case of a low blood sugar emergency - and make sure your friends and loved ones know how to use it.
- Schedule regular physical and regular eye exams.Your regularDiabetesare not intended to replace annual physicals or routine eye exams. During the physical process, your doctor will look for any complications related toDiabetesand screen for other medical problems. Your eye care specialist will check for signs of retinal damage, cataracts, and glaucoma.
- Keep your vaccines current.High blood sugar can weaken your immune system. Get a flu shot every year, and your doctor may also recommend the pneumonia vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also currently recommend vaccination against hepatitis B if you have not been previously vaccinated against hepatitis B and you are an adult 19 to 59 years withDiabetestype 1 or type 2. The most recent CDC guidelines recommend vaccination as soon as possible after diagnosis withDiabetestype 1 or type 2. If you are 60 years of age or over,Diabetesand you have not previously received the vaccine, talk to your doctor if it is right for you.
- Pay attention to your feet.Wash your feet daily in warm water. Dry them gently, especially between the toes. Moisturize with lotion, but not between your toes. Check your feet every day for blisters, cuts, sores, redness or swelling. Consult your doctor if you have a pain or other foot problem that does not heal promptly on your own.
- Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol under control.Eating healthy foods and exercising regularly can go a long way in controlling high blood pressure and cholesterol. Medication may also be required.
- Take care of your teeth.Diabetescan leave you prone to more serious gum infections. Brush and grind your teeth at least twice a day. And if you haveDiabetestype 1 or type 2, schedule regular dental exams. Consult your dentist immediately if your gums bleed or become red or swollen.
- If you smoke or use other types of tobacco, ask your doctor to help you quit.Smoking increases the risk of various complicationsDiabetes. Smokers who haveDiabetesare more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than nonsmokers who haveDiabetes, according to AmericanDiabetesAssociation. Talk to your doctor about ways to stop smoking or stop using other types of tobacco.
- If you drink alcohol, do it responsibly.Alcohol can cause high or low blood sugar, depending on how much you drink and eat at the same time. If you choose to drink, do so only in moderation - one drink per day for women of all ages and men up to 65 years old and up to two drinks per day for men 65 years of age or younger - and always with foods. Remember to include the carbs of any alcohol you drink in your daily carbohydrate count. And check your blood sugar levels before going to bed.
- Take the stress seriously.The hormones your body can produce in response to prolonged stress can prevent insulin from functioning properly, which will increase your blood sugar level and stress you further. Set boundaries for yourself and prioritize your tasks. Learn relaxation techniques. And sleep a lot.
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