Diseases And Treatments

Sensory Neuropathy - Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

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Sensory Neuropathy - Causes, Symptoms and Treatmentsthat everyone should know. In additionsensory neuropathyis the damage that has occurred in a sensory neuron, which leads to a very painful sensitivity, such as heat or cold. Neuropathy means that there was nerve damage, so that the communications network that transmits information between the central nervous system and all other damaged parts of the body produces what is known asSensory Neuropathy.

There are more than 100 types of peripheral neuropathies, each with its own symptoms and evolution. Usually they are classified by the type of nerve damage. If it only affects one is called mononeuropathy, and if this affects two or more is called polyneuropathy. The latter usually occurs much more frequently.

They can also be classified according to the affected nerves, motor or the autonomic system. Therefore, if the damage affects the nerves that the information brings sensitivity, we are talking about asensory neuropathy.

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If the nerve is damaged it is disrupting the movement would be amotor neuropathy, and if the nerve reached is the autonomic nerve, it would be the neuropathy. Thus, under the concept ofsensory neuropathy, they are grouped together all diseases that affect one or more peripheral sensory nerves.

Sensory Neuropathy Features:Sensory neuropathypainful is a heterogeneous group of entities that in many cases the diagnosis is difficult because very few clinical and neurophysiological objectives manifest.

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Insensory neuropathiesare: vasculitis-associated neuropathy, Sjogren's disease, acquired amyloid neuropathy, paraneoplastic toxin (arsenic), infectious neuropathy (AIDS), polyneuropathy associated with MAGUS, and hereditary polyneuropathy (hereditary sensory-autonomic neuropathy, familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, Fabry disease and Tangier disease, among others).

Main Symptoms of Sensory Neuropathy:Not many different causessensory neuropathies, but the symptoms are often similar. Including tinnitus, numbness (paresthesia), painful burn sensations or electric shock type are common.

Pain is usually the first symptom. It starts at the feet and is gradually extended gradually to the surrounding areas of the limbs, hands and arms reach. Burning pain has been attributed to small myelinated and non-myelinated fibers under conditions such as such as amyloidosis, Tangier's disease, and Fabry's disease, and some cases of hereditary autonomous communities.

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The pain can be very intense, resulting in disturbances of the gait, since the contact with the own ground increases the pain. Obviously, the symptoms vary depending on which nerves - whether motor, sensory or autonomic - are damaged. Some neuropathies that affect one type of nerves while others may affect everyone.

In case it is a sensory nerve injury, the symptoms are varied, since the sensory nerves have a wide range of functions. If the damage is caused in large sensory fibers, deterioration occurs in the touch, which results in an overall decrease of sensations.

Because they usually feel more in hands and feet, the person may feel as if wearing gloves or socks. This damage can also help the lost reflexes. Other symptoms that may causesensory nerveis the inability to coordinate complex movements such as walking or buttoning a button.

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If they were small fibers that are damaged, this damage can lead to the inability to feel pain or changes in temperature. That would be a problem because that person would not be able to perceive a wound to be infected.

Neuropathic pain can also be damage to the sensory nerve. This becomes so difficult to control, which can seriously affect the emotional well-being and overall quality of life of the person.

Neuropathic pain is often associated with a hypersensitivity to skin pain receptors, making people feel pain from stimuli that do not cause any pain. A serious example, to feel pain, simply by rubbing some leaves.

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In short, themain symptoms of sensory neuropathyare:

  • Gradual onset of numbness or tingling in the feet and hands that may extend upward in the legs and arms.
  • Acute throbbing pain or freezing pain.
  • Extreme touch sensitivity
  • Muscle weakness or paralysis if motor nerves affect.
  • Pain, burning, tingling, abnormal sensation in any area of ​​the body (called neuralgia)

Main Causes of Sensory Neuropathy:THEsensory neuropathymay occur in patients with diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, amyloidosis, Tangier's disease, Sjögren's syndrome, etc. Nerve damage can be caused by several factors:

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  • Immunological diseases
  • Affection exerting pressure on the nerves
  • Reduced nerve blood flow
  • Swelling or inflammation of nerves
  • diseases that are destroying the connective tissue that holds cells and tissues together.
  • Exposure to poisons, toxic substances such as heavy metals or chemicals.
  • drugs can cause peripheral neuropathies like some of those that are used to treat cancer cases.
  • Disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth, which is a type of hereditary neuropathy.
  • Trauma or pressure on the nerve such as accidents, falls or sports injuries can break down peripheral nerves.
  • Disturbances of the bone marrow. This includes abnormal blood proteins, lymphoma, and amyloidosis.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency, B1 and E.
  • Diseases in the kidney, liver, thyroid problems or connective tissue diseases.

Diagnosis of Sensory Neuropathy:The main problem of diagnosis is that the only symptom is pain, that it is difficult to decide whether the pain is caused by a neuropathy or due to other causes. Explorations needed for diagnosis include:

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Skin Biopsy:In this technique the intradermal nerve fibers are discussed. It may reveal damage present in smaller fibers in contrast to conventional nerve biopsy. It is also less invasive and has fewer side effects.

Nerve Biopsy:This technique should be used only when there are suspected amiolidosis, vasculitis, etc. Nerve biopsy involves the removal and testing of a sample of nerve tissue, especially the lower leg. Although this test may provide valuable information, it is difficult to perform invasive procedure and in itself can cause neuropathic side effects.

Neurophysiological Studies:These studies help assess the anatomical distribution of the lesion. But it also focuses on pathophysiology without the use of invasive techniques.

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Quantitative Sensitive Testing:This type of test evaluates the threshold of perception of different sensorial modalities. But it has two disadvantages, a) they are subjective and b) they remain altered after the lesion improves.

Nerve Conduction Speeds (NCV):They are tests that measure the degree of damage on large nerve fibers, revealing whether the symptoms are caused by degeneration of the myelin sheath or the axon.

Evaluation of the Autonomic Nervous System:We can help in the differential diagnosis of painful sensory neuropathy, as some are associated with diabetes or regional neuropathies of the senses. Examples of neuropathies are:

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  • Peripheral Polyneuropathy:burning pain, spot, worse when walking, reduced sensitivity to feet.
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia:pain, upper lip acute and nose aggravated by chewing or simply brushing the teeth.
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:acute pain, tingling, decreased sensitivity in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd finger and palm.
  • Post-Herpetic Neuralgia:Pain with a burning sensation in the chest region.

Treatment for Sensory Neuropathy:The goals of treatment would be first, to find the underlying cause of pain, control the symptoms and promote the necessary care so that the person has greater autonomy and independence.

It is available only symptomatic treatment. According to studies, tricyclic, antiepileptic and antiarrhythmic antidepressants are used. capsaicin, may also help in some cases of sensory neuropathy.

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Accordingly, and according to the cause, the treatment may include:

  • Controlling blood sugar levels
  • Do not drink alcohol
  • Take Nutritional Supplements
  • Exercises and train damaged nerves to maximize their performance.
  • Professional Therapy
  • Orthopedic Treatments
  • Physiotherapy
  • Orthopedic wheelchair or wrenches.
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