Diseases And Treatments

The 7 Major Causes of Bronchiectasis

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The 7 Major Causes of Bronchiectasiswhich we should not ignore. In addition, bronchiectasis (pronounced as brong-ke-EK-tah-sis and derived from the Greek bronchus meaning branches of the main lung bronchi plus the Greek word ektasis meaning dilation) is the abnormal widening of the bronchi or their branches which usually causes an increased risk infection. Bronchiectasis is a condition in which bronchus in the lung is damaged by inflammation or other causes and the smooth muscles of the bronchi are destroyed. In addition, the elasticity of the bronchi is often lost. Bronchiectasis may be acquired or have a genetic origin. Many physicians consider bronchiectasis as a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); Includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Causes of Bronchiectasis:Bronchiectasis is often part of a disease that affects the whole body. It is divided into two categories: cystic fibrosis (CF) -bronchiectasis and non-CF bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis may develop under the following conditions:

  • Humoral immunodeficiency (low levels of proteins that fight infections in the blood)
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis)
  • Rheumatological diseases (rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's disease)
  • Alpha1-antitrypsin disease (genetic cause of COPD in some people)
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or COPD
  • HIV infection
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (type of allergic pulmonary inflammation)

Symptoms of Bronchiectasis:The most common symptoms of bronchiectasis are:

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  • Coughing yellow or green mucus every day
  • Shortness of breath that worsens during exacerbations
  • Feeling bored or tired, especially during exacerbations
  • Fevers and / or chills, usually developing during exacerbations
  • Hissing or hissing while you breathe
  • Coughing up blood or mucus mixed with blood, a condition called hemoptysis

Diagnosis of Bronchiectasis:Health care providers can use various tests to diagnose bronchiectasis and help determine the cause. These tests may include:

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  • Blood tests to check conditions associated with bronchiectasis
  • CT scan of the chest (or CAT) or X-ray to look at the structure of the lung
  • Collection of mucus (sputum) to check the growth of bacteria or other microbes

Bronchiectasis Treatments:The treatment of bronchiectasis includes control of infections and bronchial secretions, relief of obstructions of the removal of affected portions of the lung by surgical removal or embolization of the artery and prevention of complications. Prolonged use of antibiotics prevents harmful infections and reduces hospitalizations in people with bronchiectasis, but also increases the risk of people becoming infected with bacteria that are resistant to medicines.

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Other treatment options include elimination of accumulated fluid with postural drainage and chest physiotherapy. Postural drainage techniques, aided by physiotherapists and respiratory therapists, are an important treatment support. Airway removal techniques seem helpful. Surgery can also be used to treat localized bronchiectasis, removing obstructions that can cause disease progression.

Inhaled steroid therapy that is consistently adhered may reduce sputum production and the constriction of the airways over a period of time and help prevent the progression of bronchiectasis. This is not recommended for routine use in children. One commonly used therapy is beclomethasone dipropionate. Although not approved for use in any country, dry mannitol inhalation powder, the FDA has received orphan drug status for use in people with bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis.

Prevention of Bronchiectasis:To prevent bronchiectasis, children should be immunized against measles, whooping cough, pneumonia, and other childhood acute respiratory infections. Although smoking has not been considered a direct cause of bronchiectasis, it is certainly an irritant that all patients should avoid in order to prevent the development of infections (such as bronchitis) and other complications.

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Treatments to slow the progression of this chronic disease include keeping the bronchial airways clear and secretions weakened through various forms of pneumotherapy. Aggressive treatment of bronchial infections with antibiotics to prevent the destructive cycle of infection, damage to the bronchial tubes and more infection is also standard treatment.

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Regular vaccination against pneumonia, influenza and pertussis is generally recommended. A healthy body mass index and regular medical visits can have beneficial effects in the prevention of ongoing bronchiectasis. The presence of hypoxemia, hypercapnia, dyspnea level and radiographic extent can greatly affect the mortality rate of this disease.

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