Diabetes Insipidus - What It Is, Symptoms and Treatmentswhich many are unaware of. In addition,Diabetes Insipidusis an unusual disorder that causes a water imbalance in the body. This imbalance leads to intense thirst even after drinking liquids (polydipsia) and excreting large amounts of urine (polyuria). Although the namesDiabetes Insipidusand diabetes mellitus appear similar, they are not related. diabetes mellitus - which can occur as type 1 or type 2 - is the most common form of diabetes. There is no cure forDiabetes Insipidus, but treatments are available to relieve your thirst and normalize the production of urine.
Causes of Insipidus Diabetes:AtDiabetes Insipidusoccurs when your body can not regulate how it handles fluids. Usually, your kidneys remove excess body fluids from the bloodstream. This waste of fluid is temporarily stored in your bladder as urine, before urinating. When your fluid regulating system is working properly, your kidneys conserve fluid and make less urine when the body's water is diminished, such as sweating.
The volume and composition of their body fluids remain balanced through a combination of oral intake and excretion by the kidneys. The rate of fluid intake is largely governed by thirst, although your habits may increase your intake far above the required amount. The rate of fluid excreted by your kidneys is greatly influenced by the production of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin..
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Your body makes ADH in the hypothalamus and stores the hormone in the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. ADH is released into your bloodstream when your body begins to get dehydrated. ADH then concentrates the urine by triggering the renal tubules to release water back into the bloodstream instead of excreting so much water in your urine. The way your system is stopped determines howDiabetes Insipidusthat you have:
- Central diabetes insipidus.The cause ofDiabetes Insipiduscentral in adults is usually damage to the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus. This damage disrupts the production, storage, and normal release of ADH. The damage is usually due to surgery, a tumor, an illness (such as meningitis), inflammation, or a head injury. For children, the cause may be an inherited genetic disorder. In some cases, the cause is unknown.
- Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.ODiabetes Insipidusnephrogenic disease occurs when there is a defect in the renal tubules - the structures in the kidneys that cause the water to be excreted or reabsorbed. This defect makes its rivers incapable of responding adequately to ADH. The defect may be due to an inherited (genetic) disorder or chronic kidney disease. Certain drugs, such as lithium or antiviral drugs cidofovir and foscarnet (Foscavir), can also causeDiabetes Insipidusnephrogenic.
- Insipidus of gestational diabetes.ODiabetes Insipidusof gestational diabetes is rare and occurs only during pregnancy and when an enzyme made by the placenta - the system of blood vessels and other tissues that allow the exchange of nutrients and residues between mother and baby - destroys ADH in the mother.
- Primary polydipsia.This condition - also known asDiabetes Insipidusdipsoid or psychogenic polydipsia - may cause excretion of large volumes of diluted urine. Instead of a problem with production or ADH damage, the underlying cause is excessive fluid intake.
Excessive intake of prolonged water by itself can damage the kidneys and suppress ADH, making your body unable to concentrate urine. Primary polydipsia may be the result of abnormal thirst caused by damage to the seat regulation mechanism located in the hypothalamus. Primary polydipsia was also associated with mental illness. In some casesDiabetes Insipidus, doctors never determine a cause..
Symptoms of Insipidus Diabetes:The most common signs and symptoms ofDiabetes Insipidusare:
- Extreme Headquarters
- Excretion of an excessive amount of diluted urine
Depending on the severity of the condition, the urine output can be up to 16 liters (about 15 liters) per day if you are drinking lots of fluids. Usually, a healthy adult urinates an average of less than 3 liters (about 3 liters) per day. Other signs may include the need to get up at night to urinate (nocturia) and wet the bed. Babies and young children who haveDiabetes Insipidusmay have the following signs and symptoms:
- Unexplained experience or inconsolable crying
- Sleeping problems
- Late growth
- Weight loss
When to Contact a Physician:Consult your doctor immediately if you notice the two most common signs ofDiabetes Insipidus: excessive urination and extreme thirst..
Risk Factors for Diabetes Insipidus:AtDiabetes Insipidusnephrogenic syndrome that is present or shortly after birth usually has a genetic cause that permanently alters the kidneys' ability to concentrate urine. ODiabetes InsipidusNephrogenic usually affects males, although women may pass the gene to their offspring.
Complications of Diabetes Insipidus:Dehydration: Except for primary polydipsia, which causes you to conserve lots of water, theDiabetes Insipiduscan cause your body to contain little water to function properly, and you may dehydrate. Dehydration can cause:
- Dry mouth
- Changes in skin elasticity
- Low blood pressure (hypotension)
- High Blood Blood (Hypernatremia)
- Fast heart rate
- Weight loss
Electrolyte Imbalance:AtDiabetes Insipidusmay also cause an electrolyte imbalance. Electrolytes are minerals in your blood - such as sodium and potassium - that keep the fluid balance in your body. Electrolyte imbalance can cause symptoms such as:.
- Fatigue or lethargy
- Loss of appetite
- Muscle cramps
Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus:Since the signs and symptoms ofDiabetes Insipiduscan be caused by other conditions, your doctor will perform a series of tests. If your doctor determines that you haveDiabetes Insipidus, he or she will need to determine which type ofDiabetes Insipidusyou have, because the treatment is different for each form of the disease. Some of the tests that doctors usually use to diagnose and determine the type ofDiabetes Insipidusand, in some cases, their cause, include:
- Water deprivation test.This test confirms the diagnosis and helps determine the cause ofDiabetes Insipidus. Under medical supervision, you will be asked to stop drinking liquids for a while so your doctor can measure changes in your body weight, urine output, and concentration of your urine and blood when liquids are retained. Your doctor may also measure blood levels of ADH or administer synthetic ADH during this test. The water deprivation test is performed under close supervision in children and pregnant women to ensure that no more than 5% of body weight is lost during the test.
- Urine analysis.The urine test is the physical and chemical examination of the urine. If your urine is less concentrated - which means that the amount of water is high compared to other excreted substances - it may be due toDiabetes Insipidus.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).An MRI of the head is a non-invasive procedure that uses a powerful magnetic field and radio waves to construct detailed images of brain tissue. Your doctor may want to perform an MRI scan to look for abnormalities in or near the pituitary gland.
Genetic Screening:If your doctor suspects an inherited form ofDiabetes Insipidus, he or she will analyze your family history of polyuria and may suggest genetic screening.
Insipidus Diabetes Treatments:The treatment ofDiabetes Insipidusdepends on the shape of the condition you have. Treatment options for the most common types ofDiabetes Insipidusinclude:.
- Central diabetes insipidus.As the cause of this form ofDiabetes Insipidusis the lack of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), the treatment is usually with a synthetic hormone called desmopressin. You may take desmopressin as a nasal spray, such as oral or injection tablets. The synthetic hormone will eliminate the increase in urination. For most people with this form of condition, desmopressin is safe and effective. If the condition is caused by an abnormality in the pituitary gland or hypothalamus (such as a tumor), your doctor will first treat the abnormality. Desmopressin should be considered a medication you take as needed. This is because, in most people, ADH deficiency is not complete and the amount made by the body can vary day by day. Taking more desmopressin than necessary may result in too much water retention and low levels of sodium in the blood. Symptoms of low sodium include lethargy, headache, nausea and, in severe cases, seizures. In mild cases ofDiabetes Insipidusyou only need to increase your water intake.
- Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.This condition is the result of your kidneys not responding properly to ADH, so desmopressin is not a treatment option. Instead, your doctor may prescribe a low-salt diet to help reduce the amount of urine your kidneys produce. You will also need to drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration. The drug hydrochlorothiazide, used alone or with other medicines, may improve symptoms. Although hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic (usually used to increase urine output), in some cases it may reduce the production of urine for people withDiabetes Insipidusnephrogenic. If the symptoms ofDiabetes Insipidusnephrogenic if they are due to medications you are taking, stopping these medications may help; However, do not stop taking any medicine without first talking to your doctor.
- Insipidus of gestational diabetes.The treatment for most cases of gestational diabetes insipidus is with synthetic hormone desmopressin. In rare cases, this form of the condition is caused by an abnormality in the thirst mechanism. In these rare cases, doctors do not prescribe desmopressin.
- Primary polydipsia.There is no specific treatment for this form ofDiabetes Insipidus, in addition to decreasing the amount of fluid intake. However, if the condition is caused by mental illness, the treatment of mental illness can alleviate the symptoms.
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Prevention of Diabetes Insipidus:In general, most of the causes ofDiabetes Insipidusare not preventable..
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