The 3 Main Types of Elephantiasisthey are important because knowingThe 3 Main Types of Elephantiasisthe treatment is improved. In additionElephantiasisalso known as filariasis, to cause increases and deformities in the human body, with thickening of the skin, particularly in lower limbs showing much similarity to the paw of a elephant.Elephantiasisis a term applied to infections in humans and animals by certain nematodes (round body worms) belonging to the superfamily Filarioidea.
There are 8 filarias that infect man. Many vectors (also called intermediate hosts) are involved inElephantiasisfor men (also called definitive host) and among them are Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Mansonia. By definition, theElephantiasisis a mosquito-borne infection and exists today, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 83 tropical and subtropical countries. About 120 million people have the infection.
Infection is most often detected by the presence of the microfilariae through examination of blood obtained from capillary blood (usually removed from the fourth finger of the hand). These little worms can only be seen under a microscope. It may occur in individuals of all ages, but the prevalence of infection is highest among males and in the population aged 20-40 years.
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The infection occurs especially in individuals of low socio-economic level, being well-known the fact of having focal distributions, predominating in poor urbanization and inadequate urbanization, and the number of people infected can vary widely within the same municipality and even one neighborhood.
Main Types of Elephantiasis:There are nine known filarial nematodes, which use humans as definitive hosts. They are divided into three groups according to the niche they occupy within the body:.
- Elephantiasisof the serous cavity.
THEElephantiasisis caused by worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These filariases occupy the lymphatic system, including the lymph nodes, causing lymphedema and, in chronic cases, leading to the disease known as elephantiasis.
THEElephantiasissubcutaneous is caused by loa loa (the "larva of the eye"), Mansonella streptocerca, Onchocerca volvulus and Dracunculus medinensis (the "guinea worm"). These worms occupy the subcutaneous layer of fat..
THEElephantiasisof the serous cavity is caused by the worms Mansonella perstans and Mansonella ozzardi, which occupy the serous cavity of the abdomen. In all cases, the vectors of transmission are blood sucking insects (flies or mosquitoes), or copepod of crustaceans in the case of Dracunculus medinensis..
Causes of Elephantiasis:Elephantiasis is caused by the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the same that causes dengue; Anapholes or Mansonia at night or the fly.
Symptoms of Elephantiasis:In the acute phase may appear inflammatory phenomena, among them inflammation of lymphatic vessels and lymphadenitis, in addition to general symptoms such as fever, headache, malaise, among others. Later, for a period that may take months or years, patients may experience and / or breasts in the case of women, and swelling due to fluid retention in the testicles in the case of men. Infectious skin diseases are frequent and presence of fat in the urine are other possible manifestations. There may also be evolution to severe and disabling forms of elephantiasis (excessive enlargement of limbs).
Diagnosis of Elephantiasis:As a routine of diagnosis, microfilariae in the circulating blood (thick drop method) is performed. In specific cases, ascites (fluid in the abdomen), pleural, synovial, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF or cerebrospinal fluid), urine, and ganglia may be investigated. Out of routine, breast cancer research may be the adult lymphatic system, genitalia or other injuries. For the investigation of circulating antigens, ELISA or immunochromatographic tests can be performed. The ultrasound of the scrotal pouch may be indicated in men and in women the ultrasound of the breast or inguinal and axillary region..
Prevention of Elephantiasis:The prevention of elephantiasis is done with the use of bed nets; screens on windows and doors; avoid standing still in tires; bottles and pots of plants, for example; use repellent daily; to avoid flies and mosquitoes, and it is up to the use means to combat flies and mosquitoes such as the spray of poisons through the air, such as smoke and sanitation measures basic..
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Treatments for Elephantiasis:Individuals are treated through hygienic-dietary guidelines and anti-parasitic drugs, such as diethylcarbamazine. In specific cases where drug treatment is not effective, a surgical intervention is necessary..
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