Diseases And Treatments

Asthma - What It Is, Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

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THEAsthmais a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to exaggerated bronchial responses to stimuli such as irritants, climatic and emotional factors. Contracted, the bronchioles (small airways of the lungs) limit the flow of oxygen, causing shortness of breath and wheezing in the chest. Unlike Bronchitis, theasthmahas no cure, but can be controlled. The treatment is for life, but following the medical recommendations, it is possible to reduce the crises. In addition, according to data from the Brazilian Society of Pulmonology and Tisiology (SBPT), asthma affects more than 22 million Brazilians.

An inflammatory disease in the bronchi that makes the lungs more sensitive, reacting to the slightest sign of irritation, asthma affects about 300 million people worldwide, according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO). The disorder, which ranges from children to the elderly, has a genetic origin, and its symptoms are intensified by environmental factors such as dust, virus (flu), etc.

Although it has a genetic basis, which means that the patient is born with a predisposition to the development of the disease, its occurrence depends greatly on the interaction of the individual and the environment. The manifestation of the problem will depend on exposure to various substances that are suspended in the air and can trigger the allergic process, the one we know as sensitization, such as dust mites, mold, dust and fur and cat.

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Symptoms:wheezing and tightness in the chest; dry cough, especially at night and in the morning on awakening; shortness of breath and wheezing. It is more common for signs to appear in childhood, but seizures may appear only in adulthood. Symptoms may be mild and may occur sporadically or occur more often, with seizures more than twice a week. Next, get to know the intensifiers of the problem, indicated by the Brazilian Association of Asthmatics (ABRA).

  • Allergy:dust found at home and environmental mites tend to become aggravating to the problem.
  • Infections:especially those caused by viruses (such as colds and flu) are pointed out as important triggers for seizures.
  • Physical exercises:some people suffering from the disease may experience seizures following physical activity, such as during a run or a football game, requiring medication.
  • Irritant:perfumes, cold air, pollution, among other gases can irritate the respiratory tract.
  • Cigarette smoke:according to WHO, smoking is the largest preventable cause of death in the world, killing 5 million smokers annually on the planet, with 20, 00 in Brazil. Smoking still tends to worsen asthma attacks, as smoke has toxic substances that irritate the respiratory mucosa of people with the disease. Another problem is passive inhalation, which happens when the person does not smoke, but inhales the smoke from other smokers.
  • Medicines:some medications can increase the chances of asthma crisis. Aspirin and other anti-inflammatories are some examples.
  • Emotional Aspects:it is common in some people that at a time of stress, for example, develop the asthma crisis.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux:People who suffer from reflux of food tend to have aggravated asthma attacks.

Types of Asmas:To rate the severity of yourasthma, your doctor considers the clinical analysis together with the results of your exams. Determining how severe your asthma helps the doctor to choose the best treatment. In addition, the severity ofasthmamay change over time, necessitating a readjustment of the medication. Asthma is classified into four general categories:

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  • Grade 1:mild and intermittent symptoms up to two days per week and up to two nights per month, usually with predominance of symptoms in winter, for example.
  • Grade 2:persistent and mild symptoms more than twice a week, but not more than once in a single day
  • Grade 3:moderate persistent symptoms once a day and more than one night a week
  • Grade 4:Persistent severe symptoms throughout the day on most days and often at night.

Diagnosis:Performed with clinical evaluation and additional tests. If the patient is a child, it is important for the parents to be aware of the duration of the symptoms, frequency, medication and reactions, since it is the adult responsible for explaining the child. Exams such as spirometry, which evaluates respiratory function, may be ordered.

Treatment For Asthma:Although exposure to environmental factors that cause allergy (mites, animal hair, cigarettes) triggersasthma, the problem is part of a genetic predisposition - that is why, who has asthmatic parents should be alert. So the problem has no cure. However, this does not mean that their carriers can not lead a normal life. To do this, several behavioral measures need to be part of everyday life: avoid curtains and carpets that accumulate dust, drink smoking, practicing sports that strengthen the respiratory muscles (swimming is a great demand) and, of course, keeping distance from the causative agents of crises

Drugs can also be used, divided into two categories: in one, are the bronchial dilator remedies, plus indicated for moments of crisis; in the other, there are the anti-inflammatory medicines, suitable for maintenance and prevention. In the second case, the substances given by inhalation, thanks to the bombs, have a better effect. That they are valuable allies, but not always well seen:

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Currently we work with different medicines through the bombinhas. Different inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids. In this way, we increase the concentration of the drug in the lungs and we have fewer side effects. It is very important to understand that the bomb does not kill or even vice. That's a wrong concept. In addition, it is very important that, once the disease is controlled, the patient does not neglect treatment or modify it on his own.

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