Diseases And Treatments

Syncope - What It Is, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

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Syncope - What It Is, Causes, Symptoms and Treatmentmore suitable to deal with this condition. In additionSyncopeor faintingis defined as the sudden loss of consciousness associated with deficit of postural tone with spontaneous and complete recovery. Most episodes result from the transient reduction of cerebral blood flow by sudden temporary fall of blood pressure (BP).

Fainting is scientifically calledSyncopeand can be described as an abrupt loss of consciousness associated with loss of postural tone (loss of ability to stand), followed by a rapid and complete recovery.THESyncopemay be the only symptom that precedes sudden death. Even if the cause ofSyncopein itself is benign, the consequences of an abrupt fall may not be, especially in an elderly population, more susceptible to the formation of subdural hematoma and fracture of the skull or extremities.

That is, the person loses consciousness and falls, waking up immediately afterwards without sequelae. THESyncopeit is not a disease, it is a symptom of some disease. The most common cause is the so-called vagal or

Syncopevasovagal, related to the inappropriate activation of the vagus nerve.

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Symptoms Syncope:The typical form ofSyncopeis characterized by a brief loss of consciousness, sudden onset, without any previous symptoms. It causes an instant fall of the patient with the risk of injury.

It can be accompanied by pallor, respiratory arrest and deceleration or acceleration of the heart beat. The signs and symptoms ofSyncopeinclude generalized muscle weakness, inability to stand up, pallor, poor pulse, perspiration, and loss of consciousness.

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The victim recovers spontaneously and suddenly within seconds or minutes, without remembering what happened to him. Atypical forms ofSyncopeare preceded by symptoms such as dizziness, sweating or visual disturbances. In addition, the occurrence of seizures duringSyncopemay be a sign of neurological origin.

Causes of Syncope:THESyncopecan be caused by cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular or unexplained (indeterminate cause) problems. Cardiovascular causes are the most frequent, being: structural (changes in the anatomy of the heart - valves, coronary, heart muscle, etc), arrhythmias, reflex mediated (Syncopevas-vagal) or postural.

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Non-cardiovascular causes are subdivided into: neurological, metabolic (anemia, low glucose, etc.) and psychogenic problems. The cause can not be determined in approximately 15% of theSyncopes.

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Vagal-vagal syncope:It is the most common type ofSyncope. It is a condition in which there is a change in the blood pressure regulating center (autonomic nervous system) with an exaggerated response of the organism to a stress situation (see blood, crowded and hot environments, pain, fear), dehydration or standing posture, leading to a sudden drop in blood pressure and slowing of heart rate. This type of fainting warns when it will arrive, as it is preceded by: visual turbidity, cold sweat, nausea, dizziness. When lying down at the beginning of these symptoms the person may not faint.

Postural syncope:Also called postural hypotension. Occurs when blood pressure drops due to change in position (lying to standing). It may be related to certain medications, diabetes or dehydration.

Cardiac syncope:Loss of consciousness caused by decreased cerebral blood flow secondary to cardiac changes that prevent blood from flowing normally. Examples: arrhythmias, valve diseases, blood clots or heart failure.

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Neurological Syncope:Loss of consciousness due to neurological problems. Examples: seizure, stroke (stroke), transient ischemic attack, hydrocephalus. In these cases, theSyncopeit is usually associated with changes in muscle strength, gait, speech, or vision. The recovery of consciousness is slower.

Treatment for Syncope:Syncopeis the clinical manifestation of a large number of underlying diseases, the prognosis of which may be extremely variable, including benign conditions such asSyncopevasovagal, to situations of high cardiovascular risk, where it may be the marker of a fatal cardiac event, as in patients with severe structural heart disease.

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Thus, the treatment is very variable and directed to the underlying disease. In some situations, treatment is aimed at improving the quality of life and reducing recurrences; in others, it must be aggressive, to prevent cardiac death.

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