Diseases And Treatments

Pulmonary Edema - What It Is, Symptoms and Treatments


Pulmonary Edema - What It Is, Symptoms and Treatmentswith medicines. In addition, thePulmonary edemais a condition caused by too much fluid in the lungs. This fluid accumulates in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. In most cases, heart problems causePulmonary edema. But fluid can accumulate for other reasons, including pneumonia, exposure to certain toxins and medications, chest wall trauma and exercise, or living at high elevations. OPulmonary edemawhich develops suddenly (Pulmonary edemaacute) is a medical emergency requiring immediate care.Although thePulmonary edemacan be fatal, the prospect improves when you receivePulmonary edemaalong with the treatment for the underlying problem. Treatment forPulmonary edemavaries depending on the cause, but usually includes supplemental oxygen and medications. OPulmonary edemais an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, which can lead to shortness of breath.

Causes of Pulmonary Edema:OPulmonary edemais usually caused by heart failure, which leads to increased pressure in the pulmonary veins. As the pressure in these blood vessels increases, the fluid is drawn into the air spaces of the lungs, called alveoli. This accumulated fluid stops the normal flow of oxygen in the lungs, resulting in shortness of breath. Other cardiac conditions can lead to

Pulmonary edemaalso:

  • Heart attack
  • Leaking or narrowing of heart valves (mitral or aortic valves)
  • Any heart disease that results in weakening or stiffness of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Hypertension

But thePulmonary edemamay also be caused by other reasons. Look:



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  • Pulmonary lesions caused by poisonous gases or serious infections
  • Some medicines
  • Serious injury
  • Renal insufficiency
  • Exercises at extreme altitudes

Symptoms of Pulmonary Edema:Depending on the cause, the symptoms ofPulmonary edemamay suddenly appear or develop over time. The symptoms (acute) ofPulmonary edemaare they:

  • Lack of extreme breathing or difficulty breathing (dyspnea) that worsens when lying down
  • A feeling of suffocation or drowning
  • Wheezing or sighing
  • Anxiety, restlessness or feeling of apprehension
  • Cough that produces foamy sputum that can be blood-tinged
  • Chest pain ifPulmonary edemais caused by heart disease
  • A rapid, irregular heartbeat (palpitations)

If you develop any of these signs or symptoms, call your emergency medical care right away. OPulmonary edemacan be fatal if not treated. Symptoms ofPulmonary edemaprolonged (chronic):

  • Having more shortness of breath than normal when you are physically active.
  • Difficulty breathing with effort.
  • Difficulty breathing when it is flat.
  • Wheezing.
  • Awakening at night with a feeling of breathing that can be relieved by sitting down.
  • Rapid weight gain whenPulmonary edemadevelops as a result of congestive heart failure, a condition in which your heart pumps too little blood to meet the needs of your body. Weight gain is the accumulation of fluid in your body, especially in the legs.
  • Swelling in the lower extremities.
  • Fatigue.

Symptoms ofPulmonary edemahigh altitude are:

  • Shortness of breath after exertion, progressing to shortness of breath at rest
  • Cough
  • Difficulty walking upwards, which progresses to hinder walking on flat surfaces
  • Fever
  • Cough that produces foamy sputum that can be blood-tinged
  • A rapid, irregular heartbeat (palpitations)
  • Chest discomfort
  • Headaches, which may be the first symptom

When to Contact a Physician:OPulmonary edemawhich occurs suddenly (Pulmonary edemaacute) is fatal. Get emergency medical help if you have any of the following acute signs and symptoms:

  • Shortness of breath, especially if it suddenly appears
  • Problems breathing or feeling of suffocation (dyspnoea)
  • A bubbling, wheezing or wheezing sound when you breathe
  • Spray pink and frothy when coughing
  • Difficulty breathing along with profuse sweating
  • A blue or gray tone on your skin
  • A significant drop in blood pressure, resulting in dizziness, dizziness, weakness or sweating
  • Sudden worsening of any of the symptoms associated withPulmonary edemachronic orPulmonary edemahigh altitude

Do not attempt to go to the hospital. Instead, call emergency medical care and wait for help.


Pulmonary Edema Complications:If thePulmonary edemacontinue, it can increase pressure in the pulmonary artery (pulmonary hypertension) and eventually the right ventricle in your heart gets weak and starts to fail. The right ventricle has a much thinner muscle wall than the left side of the heart because it is under less pressure to pump blood into the lungs. Increasing pressure back into the right atrium and then into various parts of your body where it can cause:

  • Lower extremity and abdominal swelling
  • Accumulation of fluid in the membranes surrounding your lungs (pleural effusion)
  • Congestion and swelling of the liver

When untreated, thePulmonary edemacan be fatal. In some cases, it can be fatal, even if you receive treatment.

Tests and Diagnosis of Pulmonary Edema:As thePulmonary edemarequires immediate treatment, you will be initially diagnosed based on your symptoms and physical examination, electrocardiogram and chest X-ray. Once your condition is more stable, your doctor will ask about your medical history, especially if you have ever had cardiovascular or lung disease. Tests that can be done to diagnosePulmonary edemaor to determine why you developed fluid in your lungs include:

  • Chest X-ray:A chest x-ray is likely to be the first test you performed to confirm the diagnosis ofPulmonary edemaand exclude other possible causes of shortness of breath.
  • Pulse Oximetry:In pulse oximetry, a sensor attached to your finger or ear uses light to determine the amount of oxygen in your blood.
  • Bloodtests.You may have blood drawn, usually from an artery on your wrist, so that it can be the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide it contains (concentrations of arterial gas blood). Your blood can also be checked for levels of a substance called B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Increased levels of BNP may indicate that yourPulmonary edemais caused by a heart condition. Other blood tests may be done - including tests for your kidney function, thyroid function and blood count as well as tests to rule out a heart attack as the cause ofPulmonary edema.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG).This noninvasive test can reveal a wide range of information about your heart. During an ECG, the patches attached to your skin receive electrical impulses from your heart. These are recorded in the form of waves on graph paper or a monitor. Wave patterns show your heart rate and rhythm and if your heart areas have decreased blood flow.
  • Echocardiogram.An echocardiogram is a non-invasive test that uses a wand device called a transducer to generate high-frequency sound waves that are reflected by the tissues of the heart. The sound waves are then sent to a machine that uses them to compose images of your heart on a monitor. The test can help diagnose a range of heart problems, including heart valve problems, abnormal movements of the ventricular walls, fluid around the heart (pericardial effusion), and heart defects congenital. It may also show areas of diminished blood flow in your heart and if your heart pumps blood effectively when it knocks. It can also estimate whether there is increased pressure on the right side of the heart and increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries.
  • Trans Esophageal Echocardiography (TEE).In a traditional cardiac ultrasound examination, the transducer remains outside the body at the chest wall. But in TEE, a doctor inserts a soft, flexible tube (catheter) with a transducer attached to the tip through the mouth and guides it into the esophagus - the passageway that leads to your stomach. The esophagus is immediately behind your heart, allowing your doctor to see a closer and more accurate image of the heart and central pulmonary arteries.
  • Pulmonary Artery Catheterization.If other tests do not reveal the reason for thePulmonary edema, your doctor may suggest a procedure to measure the pressure in your pulmonary capillaries (wedge pressure). During this test, a physician inserts a small balloon-tipped catheter through a vein into his leg or arm and guides him to a pulmonary artery. The catheter has two openings connected to pressure transducers. The balloon is inflated and then deflated, giving pressure readings.
  • Cardiac catheterization.If tests, such as an ECG or echocardiography, do not reveal the cause ofPulmonary edema, or you also have chest pain, your doctor may suggest cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography. During cardiac catheterization, a physician inserts a long, thin catheter into an artery or vein into your groin, neck, or arm and makes it cross your blood vessels to your heart using images of X ray. The doctors then injected dyes into the blood vessels of their heart to make them visible under X-ray images (coronary angiography). During this procedure, doctors can perform treatments, such as opening a blocked artery, which can quickly improve the pumping action of the left ventricle. Cardiac catheterization can also be used to measure pressure in your cardiac chambers, evaluate your heart valves, and look for causes ofPulmonary edema.

Pulmonary Edema Treatments:Giving oxygen is the first step in the treatment ofPulmonary edema. You usually get oxygen through a face mask or nasal cannula - a flexible plastic tube with two openings that provide oxygen to each nostril. This should relieve some of your symptoms.

Your doctor will monitor your oxygen level closely. Sometimes it may be necessary to aid your breathing with a machine, such as a mechanical fan. Depending on your condition and the reason for thePulmonary edema, you may also receive one or more of the following medicines:

  • Preload reducers.Pre-load reduction drugs decrease the pressure caused by fluid entering the heart and lungs. Doctors commonly prescribe nitroglycerin and diuretics such as furosemide (Lasix) to treatpulmonary edema. Diuretics may make you urinate so much initially that you may need a urinary catheter temporarily while you are in the hospital. The drug nifedipine (Procardia) can sometimes be prescribed.
  • Morphine (Avinza, MS Contin).This narcotic can be used to relieve shortness of breath and anxiety. But some physicians believe that the risks of morphine may outweigh the benefits and are more likely to use other more effective medications.
  • Afterload reducers.These medications, such as nitroprusside (Nitropress), dilate your blood vessels and carry a pressure load out of the left ventricle of the heart.
  • Medications for blood pressure.If you have high blood pressure when you developpulmonary edema, you will receive medications to control it. Alternatively, if your blood pressure is too low, you are likely to receive medications to increase it.

If yourPulmonary edemais caused by another condition, such as a condition of the nervous system, your doctor will treat the condition you are causing and thepulmonary edema. Some climbers receive prescription medications, such as acetazolamide (Diamox Sequels) or nifedipine to help treat or prevent HAPE symptoms. To prevent HAPE, the medication is started at least one day before the rise. The most commonly used drugs for the treatment ofpulmonary edemaare:

  • Aminophylline
  • Acetylcysteine
  • Aires
  • Bricanyl
  • Ipratropium bromide
  • Fenoterol hydrobromide
  • Betamethasone
  • Brondilat
  • Celestone
  • Dobutamine
  • Fluimucil
  • Fluimucil (syrup)
  • Foraseq
  • Ipratropio


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Only a doctor can tell you which drug is most appropriate for your case, as well as the correct dosage and duration of treatment. Always follow your doctor's guidelines carefully and never self-medicate. Do not stop using the medication without first consulting a doctor and if you take it more than once or in much larger amounts than prescribed, follow the instructions in the package insert.Prevention of Pulmonary Edema:OPulmonary edemais not always avoidable, but these measures can help reduce your risk. Cardiovascular disease is the main cause ofPulmonary edema. You can reduce the risk of many types of heart problems by following these suggestions:

  • Control your blood pressure.High blood pressure (hypertension) can lead to serious conditions such as stroke, cardiovascular disease and kidney failure. In many cases, you can lower your blood pressure or maintain a healthy level while doing regular exercise; Maintaining a weight healthy; Eating a diet rich in fresh fruits, vegetables and dairy products with low fat content; And by limiting salt and alcohol.
  • Watch your blood cholesterol.Cholesterol is one of several types of fats essential for good health. But too much cholesterol can be very good. Cholesterol levels above normal can cause fat deposits in your artery, impeding blood flow and increasing your risk of vascular disease. But lifestyle changes can often keep your cholesterol levels low. Lifestyle changes may include limiting fats (especially saturated fats); Eating more fiber, fish and fresh fruits and vegetables; Exercising regularly; Quit smoking; And drink with moderation.
  • Do not smoke.If you smoke and can not go out on your own, talk to your doctor about strategies or programs to help you break a smoking habit. Smoking can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease. Also avoid secondhand smoke.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.A healthy diet with low salt, sugars and solid fats and rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
  • Salt limit.It is especially important to use less salt (sodium) if you have heart disease or high blood pressure. In some people with severely damaged left ventricular function, excess salt may be sufficient to trigger congestive heart failure. If you are having difficulty reducing salt, this can help you talk to a nutritionist. He or she can help point out foods low in sodium, in addition to offering tips for making a low salt diet and good tasting.
  • Exercise regularly.Exercise is vital for a healthy heart. Regular aerobic exercise, about 30 minutes a day, helps control blood pressure and cholesterol levels and maintain a healthy weight. If you are not used to exercising, start slowly and gradually increase. Make sure your doctor is well before starting an exercise program.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.Being even a little overweight increases your risk of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, even losing small amounts of weight can lower blood pressure and cholesterol and reduce the risk of diabetes.
  • Manage stress.To reduce the risk of heart problems, try to reduce your stress levels. Find healthy ways to minimize or deal with stressful events in your life.


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