The Main Symptoms of Nephrotic Syndromewhich we should not ignore. In additionNephrotic syndromemay occur when the kidney filter units are damaged. This damage allows the protein normally held in the plasma to escape into the urine in large quantities, which reduces the amount of protein in your blood. Once the protein in the blood helps to keep fluid in the bloodstream, some of these fluids escape from the bloodstream to the tissues, causing swelling, called edema. The swelling may be more noticeable on your legs after you have stopped and around your eyes when you get up in the morning.
Eventually, the swelling in the legs may be there all the time, and may also occur in other parts of your body. You may notice that your urine is more frothy than usual due to the amount of protein in it.
Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome:THENephrotic syndromeis caused by different disorders that damage the kidneys. This damage leads to the release of too much protein in the urine. The most common cause in children is minimal change disease. Membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common cause in adults. In both diseases, the glomeruli in the kidneys are damaged. Glomeruli are the structures that help to filter waste and fluids. This condition can also occur from:
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- Diseases such as diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple myeloma, and amyloidosis
- Genetic disorders
- Immunological disorders
- Infections (such as streptococci, hepatitis, or mononucleosis)
- Use of certain medicines
It can occur with kidney disorders such as:
- Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis
- Mesangiocapillar Glomerulonephritis
- THENephrotic syndromecan affect all age groups. In children, it is most common between the ages of 2 and 6. This disorder occurs a little more often in men than in women.
Symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome:Swelling (edema) is the most common symptom. THENephrotic syndromemay occur:.
- On the face and around the eyes (facial swelling)
- In the arms and legs, especially in the feet and ankles
- In the belly area (swollen abdomen)
Other symptoms include:
- Weight gain (unintentional) of fluid retention
- Rash or sores
- Foamy appearance of urine
- Little appetite
Diagnosis of Nephrotic Syndrome:Doctors diagnose theNephrotic syndromeusing:.
- Urine tests to measure the amount of protein in your urine.
- Blood tests to measure the amount of protein, cholesterol, and sugar (glucose) in your blood.
- Ultrasound to look at the kidneys. This test may exclude other causes of your symptoms.
- A kidney biopsy can be done to find the cause. You may also have other tests to identify what is causingNephrotic syndrome.
Complications of Nephrotic Syndrome:The complications ofNephrotic syndromemay include:.
- Dehydration- low levels of protein can lead to a reduction in blood volume. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be given to increase the body's water content
- Blood clots- these occur in the veins of the legs and occasionally in the renal veins. Blood clots can also enter the lungs and cause chest pain, shortness of breath, or blood coughing.
- Infection- infection and inflammation (peritonitis) of the peritoneal cavity. This is the thin elastic coating that contains pancreas, stomach, intestine, liver, gallbladder and other organs. Fever may indicate infection
- Renal insufficiency- Without treatment, the kidneys may fail in extreme cases.
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Nephrotic Syndrome Treatments:The objectives of treatment ofNephrotic syndromeare to alleviate symptoms, prevent complications and delay kidney damage. To control theNephrotic syndrome, the disorder that is causing it should be treated. You may need treatment for life. Treatments may include any of the following:
- Maintain blood pressure at or below 130/80 mm Hg to slow kidney damage. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are the most commonly used drugs. ACE inhibitors and ARBs may also help decrease the amount of protein lost in the urine.
- Corticosteroids and other drugs that suppress or silence the immune system.
- Treatment of high cholesterol to reduce the risk of heart and blood vessel problems. A low-fat, low-cholesterol diet is usually not enough for people withNephrotic syndrome. Medications may be needed to reduce cholesterol and triglycerides (usually statins).
- A low-salt diet can help with swelling in the hands and legs. Water pills (diuretics) may also help with this problem.
- Low protein diets may be useful. Your doctor may suggest a moderate protein diet (1 gram [gm] of protein per kg [kg] of body weight per day).
- Taking vitamin D supplements willNephrotic syndromeis long term and is not responding to treatment.
- Taking thinner drugs to treat or prevent blood clots.
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