THEyellow feveris a viral infection transmitted by a bite of infected mosquitoes most commonly found in parts of South America and Africa. When transmitted to humans, the virusyellow fevercan damage the liver and other internal organs and be potentially fatal. The World Health Organization estimates that there are 20, 00 cases ofyellow feveraround the world each year, resulting in 3, 00 deaths. THEyellow feverappears to be growing internationally due to the decrease in immunity to infection among local populations, deforestation, climate change and high density urbanization.
What is the Risk of Yellow Fever:The CDC identified 44 municipalities with a risk of transmission ofyellow fever, many of them with tropical climates. Although the actual number ofyellow feverbetween American and European travelers to those countries at risk is low, vaccination is advised for the majority of international travelers to these countries because theyellow feverit has no cure and can be deadly..
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How is Yellow Fever Spread:THEyellow feveris typically disseminated to humans from bites by infected mosquitoes. People can not spread the wordyellow feverbetween each other through casual contact, although the infection can be transmitted directly to the blood through contaminated needles.
Some different species of mosquitoes transmityellow fever; Some reproduce in urban areas, others in jungles. Mosquitoes that reproduce in the jungle also transmityellow feverto monkeys, which, besides humans, are hosts of the disease..
Symptoms of Yellow Fever:THEyellow feveris named after two of its most obvious symptoms: fever and yellowing of the skin. Yellowing occurs because the disease causes liver damage, hepatitis. For some people, theyellow feverhas no early symptoms, while for others, the first symptoms appear three to six days after exposure to the virus from a mosquito bite.
An infection withyellow fevertypically has three phases. The first phase of the symptoms can last for three to four days, and then for most people, it disappears. The first phase is generally non-specific and can not be distinguished from other viral infections.
The initial symptoms of yellow fever are:.
- Fever and Chills:Symptoms such as muscle aches, headaches and vomiting
- The next phase is remission, which lasts 48 hours. Patients get better. Most recover.
- Unfortunately, a third, more toxic phase of infection occurs for 15% to 25% of patients. Ultimately, a condition called viral haemorrhagic fever can develop, with internal bleeding (hemorrhage), high fever, and damage to the liver, kidneys and circulatory system. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 50% of people worldwide who reach this severe phase of infection die while half recover.
Symptoms of third stage yellow fever may include:.
- Jaundice (liver damage), which causes yellowing of the skin and eyes
- Hepatitis (inflammation of the liver)
- Internal bleeding (hemorrhage)
- vomiting of blood
- Multisystemic organ failure leading to death
How Yellow Fever Is Diagnosed:THEyellow feveris diagnosed for its symptoms, recent travel activity and blood tests. Symptoms ofyellow feversymptoms of other tropical diseases, such as malaria and typhoid fever, so contact your doctor if you experience symptoms ofyellow feverand recently traveled to a high-risk country.
How Yellow Fever is Treated:Because there is no cure for the viral infection itself, theyellow feverfocuses on attenuation symptoms such as fever, muscle aches and dehydration. Because of the risk of internal bleeding, avoid aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs if you suspect that you have theyellow fever. Hospitalization is often necessary..
Prevention of Yellow Fever Through Vaccination:Because there is no cure foryellow fever, prevention is critical. The vaccineinyellow feveris recommended for adults and older children 9 months traveling or living in countries with a known risk ofyellow fever. Certain countries in Africa and Latin America with a higher risk of exposure toyellow fevernow require proof of vaccination against theyellow feverbefore allowing you to travel there.
Medical clinics and state or local health departments often offer the vaccine, which needs to be repeated every 10 years for people traveling to high-risk areas. These approved vaccination centers can also provide you with the International Certificate of Vaccination that you will need to enter into certain countries at risk.
Call your doctor immediately if you develop symptoms such as a fever, flu, or other unusual signs after taking the vaccine. The vaccine againstyellow fever, in some rare cases, caused an allergic reaction, nervous reaction, and life-threatening disease..
Who Should Not Be Vaccinated For Yellow Fever:Vaccination againstyellow fevernot recommended for everyone. The vaccine can cause serious adverse effects in certain people. Efforts are underway to develop a dead vaccine that will be safer. Talk to your doctor before getting the vaccine if:
- Having a compromised immune system, such as HIV
- Has cancer or problems in the thymus gland
- Have had treatment that can disrupt the immune system, such as steroids or cancer treatment
- Had a life-threatening allergic reaction to eggs, chicken, gelatin, or past yellow fever vaccine
- Are you pregnant or breastfeeding?
- Are 65 years or older
- Your child is less than 9 months old.
Keep in mind that vaccination has two goals:Protect the health of individual travelers entering high-risk regions and protect countries' public health by preventing the importation ofyellow feverin your region. If you are exempt from vaccination for medical reasons, you may need to provide proof of exemption for entry into some countries..
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Other Measures to Prevent Yellow Fever:Vaccination is the most important measure you should take when traveling to areas where exposure to the virusyellow feverit's possible. No other measure is more effective, but there are other valuable recommendations. You must:.
- Use the right insect repellent for mosquitoes on exposed skin and follow the directions on the packaging. Buy one with DEET, picaridin, lemon oil, eucalyptus, or an ingredient called IR3535.
- Cover your arms, hands, legs and head to protect yourself from bites.
- Use a repellent containing permethrin on the outside of the clothing, mosquito nets, and other gear.
- Use screens on windows and doors, and mosquito netting on beds, to keep mosquitoes away.
- Avoid the outdoors during peak mosquito hours (dusk at dawn for many types of mosquitoes carrying the infection).
- Keep accurate records of international travel dates, locations, and outdoor activities in case you need to identify a viral infection when you return.
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