Kaposi's Sarcoma - Causes, Symptoms and Treatmentswhich we should know. In addition, theKaposi's sarcomais caused by the human herpes virus, an infection that is likely to become problematic in people with compromised immune systems. OKaposi's sarcomais a multicentric vascular tumor, which means it involves blood vessels and affects the soft tissues in multiple areas of the body. It originates from the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, causing them to grow at a faster rate and survive for more than normal.
There are four main types ofKaposi's sarcoma(KS):
- Kaposi's sarcomaClassic:Also known asSarcoma Kaposiof the Mediterranean, as it occurs mainly in older people in the Mediterranean, Eastern Europe and the Middle East. It is more common in men than in women;
- Sarcoma Kaposi Epidemic:The most common form ofSarcoma Kaposi, also known asKaposi's sarcomaassociated with AIDS;
Endemic Kaposi Sarcoma:Also known as African Kaposi sarcoma, this form is relatively common in equatorial Africa and can affect children and adults regardless of HIV infection;
- Sarcoma KaposiIatrogenic:Also known asKaposi's sarcomarelated to immunosuppressive treatment,Kaposi's sarcomaimmunosuppressive orKaposi's sarcomarelated to transplantation.
OKaposi's sarcomais a disease that defines AIDS in people infected with HIV and the most common malignancy associated with the syndrome. The appearance ofKaposi's sarcomais often what triggers a diagnosis of AIDS..
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There have been more recent reportsKaposi's sarcomawhich occurs in people whose HIV is being well managed with antiretroviral drugs and whose viral load is undetectable. This has led some physicians to question whetherKaposi's sarcomait should still be considered a disease that defines AIDS.
Main Causes of Kaposi's Sarcoma:OKaposi's sarcomaendemic or African strain affects young adult males in equatorial Africa with a normal immune system. Up to 9% of Ugandan men suffer from this condition. Sometimes children can also be affected. In them, cancer invades the lymph nodes and lymphatic channels and spares the skin. This is usually associated with spreading to other organs can be fatal..
Kaposi's sarcomaRelated to Transplant or Acquired:Patients after organ transplantation need immunosuppression drugs. This prevents the immunity of the patient from attacking and killing the newly transplanted organ. These patients with immunosuppressive drugs are at risk ofKaposi's sarcoma.
Kaposi's sarcomaAssociated with the Epidemic or HIV:This is the most common cause ofKaposi's sarcoma.The herpes virus associated withKaposi's sarcoma(KSHV) or human herpes virus 8 (HH8) is a common infection that can lead toKaposi's sarcoma. KSHV belongs to the herpes virus family. This virus is similar to the Epstein-Barr virus. The EB virus causes infectious mononucleosis or glandular fever and contributes to various cancers like lymphomas.
KSHV Brings Genetic Material to Cells:These altered genes cause cells to divide too much and unnecessarily lead to cancer. HHV-8 does not causeKaposi's sarcomain all who develop the virus. The virus only seems to causeKaposi's sarcomain people at high risk..
Main Symptoms of Kaposi's Sarcoma:People withKaposi's sarcomado not always show signs or symptoms of cancer. In many people, however, asymptomatic skin lesions are indicative of the disease.
OKaposi's sarcomaoften presents as skin lesions, marks on the skin which are:
- Macules brown, purple, pink or red (spots or stains raised)
- It can fuse into plaques and nodules that range in appearance from blue-violet to black
- Sometimes they show edema (swelling) and sometimes grow out, or in, soft tissue or bones.
- A tumor on the roof of the mouth.
- OKaposi's sarcomacan sometimes present as a mucosal injury in the mouth or throat.
- If the tumor is a lesion of the mucosa, such as in the mouth or throat, macules, plaques, or tumors may appear blue to violet., 0
- If theKaposi's sarcomais a gastrointestinal injury, it may bleed (a doctor may check the stool to identify concealed hidden bleeding). Otherwise, these lesions tend to be asymptomatic, although they may be associated with pain, diarrhea, or obstruction.
- If the lining of the lungs is affected, this can lead to shortness of breath by blockage. If the lesion bleeds, this can be observed in the cough sputum by the patient., ,10
The different forms ofKaposi's sarcomatend to have different clinical presentations:.
- OKaposi's sarcomaassociated with AIDS is a more aggressive way that usually shows as a series of skin lesions, often on the face and trunk. Internal tumors are also common
- OKaposi's sarcomaClassic / Mediterranean is usually only a small number of lesions and usually on the skin of the lower limbs, particularly the ankles and soles of the feet. Compared with other forms, skin lesions are slow growing. This type rarely manifests as an internal tumor
- OKaposi's sarcomaendemic / African population tends to affect younger people (under the age of 40), including children. Some forms appear identical to classic Kaposi and others affect the lymphatic system and internal organs
- OKaposi's sarcomarelated to Iatrogenic / immunosuppressive treatment may appear more suddenly. Often, but not always, it is confined to the skin.
Treatment for Kaposi's Sarcoma:Your treatment will depend on how many lesions you have and how large they are and where they are, as well as how well your immune system is working. In many cases, ART is the best way to treat Kaposi's active sarcoma. It can even clear up skin lesions.
If you only have a few, you could remove them. This will not heal you, but it can make your skin look better. Your doctor may cut the tissue or freeze it to destroy it..
Radiation can kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. A machine may direct you to your body, or your doctor may place radioactive needles, seeds or wires inside you near the cancer.
Once the KS has spread, you will need drugs that go through your entire body to kill the cancer. Chemotherapy drugs for theKaposi's sarcomainclude:.
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- Doxorubicin (Dox-SL, Doxil, Evacet, LipoDox)
- Paclitaxel (Taxol)
- Vinblastine (Velban, Velsar)
Chemotherapy can have side effects, including hair loss, vomiting, and fatigue. If you are HIV positive, you also need to consider that chemotherapy can lower your platelet count and white blood cells and increase your chances of infection..
Another type of drug treatment, called biological therapy, works by boosting your immune system. Your doctor may prescribe interferon alpha (Intron A) if your CD4 count is more than 200 and you have a very healthy immune system..
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Targeted therapies, such as monoclonal antibody therapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), are being tested in clinical trials. These try to attack the cancer and prevent it from growing without damaging healthy cells..
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