Biliary Duct Obstruction - Causes, Symptoms and Treatmentswhich we should not ignore. In addition, a biliary obstruction is a blockage of the bile ducts. The bile ducts lead to bile from the liver and gallbladder through the pancreas to the small intestine. A biliary obstruction can be caused by a number of factors involving the bile ducts, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and small intestine.
Most cases of biliary obstruction are a result of gallstones. This means that women are more likely to have biliary obstruction than men.
A biliary obstruction is a blockage of the bile ducts. The bile ducts carry bile from the liver and gall bladder through the pancreas to the duodenum, which is a part of the small intestine..
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Bile is a dark green or yellowish brown liquid secreted by the liver to digest the fats. After eating, the gallbladder releases the bile to aid in digestion and absorption of fat. Bile also aids in liver cleaning of waste products.
Obstruction of any of these bile ducts is referred to as a biliary obstruction. Many of the problems associated with biliary obstructions can be treated successfully..
However, if the blockage remains untreated for a long time, this can lead to fatal liver diseases.
Types of Pipes Bile:You have several types of bile ducts. The two types of bile ducts in the liver are intrahepatic and extrahepatic ducts.
Intrahepatic ducts: Intrahepatic ducts are a system of smaller tubes in the liver that collect and transport bile into the extrahepatic ducts..
Extrahepatic ducts: the extrahepatic ducts begin as two parts, one to the right of the liver and the other to the left. As they descend from the liver, they unite to form the common hepatic duct. This runs directly into the small intestine.
The bile duct, or the gallbladder duct, also opens into the common hepatic duct. The bile duct from this point is known as the common bile duct or the coyleid. Before emptying the small intestine, the common bile duct passes through the pancreas.
What Causes Bilateral Obstruction?A biliary obstruction can be caused by a number of factors involving:.
- Bile ducts;
- Small intestine;
- Some of the most common causes of biliary obstruction are;
- Gallstones, which are the most common cause;
- Inflammation of the biliary tract;
A bile stenosis, which is an abnormal narrowing of the duct
- Enlarged lymph nodes;
- A gallbladder-related injury or liver surgery;
- Tumors that have reached the liver, gallbladder, pancreas or biliary tract;
- Infections, including hepatitis;
- Cirrhosis or scarring of the liver;
- Severe liver damage;
- Choledochal cyst (present in infants at birth);
What are the risk factors?Risk factors for biliary obstruction usually depend on the cause of the obstruction. Most cases result from gallstones.
This makes women more vulnerable to the development of biliary obstruction. Other risk factors include:.
- A history of gallstones;
- Chronic pancreatitis;
- Pancreatic cancer;
- Injury in the right abdomen;
- Fast weight loss;
- Problems related to the degradation of the globules;
- red blood cells, such as sickle cell anemia;
- What are the symptoms of biliary obstruction?
Symptoms of biliary obstruction may depend on the cause of the obstruction. People with biliary obstruction usually have:
- Light-colored stools;
- Dark urine;
- Jaundice (yellowing of eyes or skin);
- Pain in the upper right side of the abdomen;
- Weight loss;
- How is a biliary obstruction diagnosed?
Several tests are available for people who may have a biliary obstruction. Based on the cause of the obstruction, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following tests..
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Blood test:A blood test includes a complete blood count (CBC) and liver function test. Blood tests can usually rule out certain problems, such as:.
- Cholecystitis, which is an inflammation of the gallbladder;
- Cholangitis, which is an inflammation of the common bile duct;
- An increase in the level of conjugated bilirubin, which is a residual liver product;
- An increase in the level of liver enzymes;
- An increase in the level of alkaline phosphatase;
- Any of these may indicate a loss of biliary flow;
Ultrasonography is usually the first test performed on anyone suspected of biliary obstruction. It allows your doctor to easily see gallstones.
Biliary radionuclide scan (HIDA scan): A scan of hepatobiliary iminodaletic acid, or HIDA scan, is also referred to as a bile radionuclide scan. It uses radioactive material to provide valuable information about the gallbladder and possible obstructions.
- A cholangiography is an x-ray of the bile ducts;
- Magnetic resonance imaging;
- An MRI provides detailed images of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and bile ducts;
- Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP);
- Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is used for the diagnosis of biliary obstructions and pancreatic diseases;
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP);
An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) involves the use of an endoscope and X-rays. It is a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. It allows the surgeon to see the bile ducts and also be used in the treatment..
This tool is particularly useful since the doctor can use it to remove the stones and take biopsy samples if necessary.
What is the Treatment for Biliary Obstruction?The treatment aims to correct the underlying cause. The main purpose of medical or surgical treatment is to relieve the blockage. Some of the treatment options include a cholecystectomy and an ERCP.
Cholecystectomy is the removal of the gallbladder if you have gallstones. An ERCP may be sufficient to remove small stones from the common bile duct or to place a stent inside the duct to restore the biliary flow. This is usually used in cases where the obstruction is caused by a tumor..
Complications of Bile Duct Obstruction:Without treatment, obstructions of the bile ducts can be fatal. Possible complications may arise without the treatment are:
- Dangerous accumulation of bilirubin;
- Chronic liver disease;
- Biliary cirrhosis;
- Contact your doctor if you develop jaundice or notice a change in the color of your stool or urine;
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Can Biliary Obstruction Be Preceded?Here are some changes you can make to decrease the chances of developing a biliary obstruction:
- Increase the amount of fiber in your diet.
- Decrease the amount of sugar and saturated fats in your diet. These can cause gallstones.
- If you are overweight, gradually accentuate your weight in to your gender, age, and height.
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